Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Showcasing Communications - Essay Example IMC battles turned into the business need to keep their clients steadfast and focused on their items in worldwide serious condition. This paper manages the concise contextual analyses of three distinct associations from a similar industry, on utilization of IMC crusades, their chose target markets, battle thoughts, apparatuses, topics and correlation of the three organizations. The entire paper explains the idea of coordinated advertising specialized devices and destinations of their utilization. With an away from and execution achievement of Integrated Marketing Communication apparatuses, certain suggestions are made for the better future utilization of incorporated showcasing efforts. The entire paper additionally tended to the difficulties of Integrated Marketing Communication draws near. Incorporated promoting correspondence With the coming of globalization in business world, organizations need to get by following a no holds barred rivalry, client dependability and maintenance. T here came the idea of utilizing all promoting instruments together to get most extreme advantage and an edge over contenders. This promoting strategy is known as coordinated advertising correspondence. This is an administration idea that puts all the advertising correspondences under one head. Coordinated promoting correspondence fills in as a bound together power to achieve all the advertising the executives objectives of association. This idea makes a connection among all the types of advertising through synergistic impact it gives. Numerous commercial center patterns offered rise to incorporated promoting correspondence. Clients mentality is changing with increment in number of commercial messages, media fracture, crowd discontinuity, mergers of advertising organizations, worldwide showcasing, devotee items, rivalry of advertisement offices; decline in expenses of database the board and upkeep of client relationship. (Thorson, Moore, 1996) Integrated promoting correspondence proc ess is certifiably not an old idea yet getting notoriety in the forthcoming patterns of business needs of keeping up serious edge. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s condition incorporated showcasing correspondence is driving old strategies of speaking with purchasers and clients. In not so distant future, IMC crusades and apparatuses will turn into the achievement components of organizations and their business need. Diverse IMC approaches There are five unique and normal and habitually utilized apparatuses of IMC; Advertising, Sales advancements, Public relations, direct promoting and Personal selling (Kym Gordon Moore, 2009) Sometimes associations center around some of them and incorporate with one another to show signs of improvement brings about consistency with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s crusade targets and organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s assets. Postulations all instruments are usually utilized for promoting purposes. Be that as it may, under coordinated showcasing correspondence, these apparatuses are u tilized as a bound together power with greater effect. Chosen IMC approaches contextual analyses Integrated advertising correspondence is a straightforward however immense idea of the executives and correspondence. Three IMC battles are chosen for a point by point investigation of effectiveness being used, similitudes in targets, distinction in approaches, thoughts,
Saturday, August 22, 2020
How Charles DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Life Influenced Oliver Twist Ã¢â¬Å"The scope of his inventive action is, in any case, restricted to the universe of his youthÃ¢â¬ (Cecil 169). This statement clarifies numerous individuals. What has recently happened to an individual tremendously affects them. It can influence their choices, feelings, and life. The life of an individual can here and there be seen effectively through what they do. Specialists frequently uncover what their life has been similar to through the works that they make. The equivalent can be said about essayists. Occasions in creators past frequently appear in his works. The above statement is, truth be told, made as to Charles Dickens. Dickens had a few genuine encounters of destitution and relinquishment in his life that affected his work, Oliver Twist. The hours of neediness and surrender in Charles DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ life ingrained a political confidence in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ mind against the new poor laws of Great Britain. DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ felt the new poor laws deceived poor people, neglected to give the poor a voice, and needed change. These focuses are appeared in Oliver Twist through the characters, scenes, and portrayal DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ utilizes all through the book. Dickens carried on with an actual existence brimming with occasions that would later impact his books. Dickens grew up during a period of progress for Great Britain. When he was conceived in 1812, the Industrial Revolution was in full power. Dickens grew up as an ordinary working class youngster in Portsmouth, Great Britain. It was around the age of twelve that his life took an intense turn. Dickens was as yet a kid when his dad was detained for obligation. Families, as of now, lived with the dad in jail. Charles didn't live in jail, however. Rather, he was sent to live alone and turn into a worker at WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Blacking Facto... ...r TwistÃ¢â¬ The Immortal Dickens. London, 1925. 63-87. Rpt in Oliver Twist. Ed. Fred Kaplan. New York: Norton and Company, 1993. Skim Greene, Graham. Ã¢â¬Å"The Young Dickens.Ã¢â¬ Collected Essays. 1969. Rpt. in Nineteenth Century Literary Criticism, Vol. 3. Ed. Laurie L. Harris. Detroit: Storm Research Company, 1983. Pg. 176. MacKenzie, Jeanne. Dickens, A Life. USA: British Library Cataloging in Distribution, 1979. Skim. Murray, Brian. Charles Dickens. New York: Continuum, 1994. Skim Paroissien, David. Letter to Noah Laible, 15 Feb 2000. Taine, Hippolyte A. History of English Literature, Vol 4. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1965. Pg. 117-163. Divider, Stephan. Ã¢â¬Å"The Letters of Charles Dickens, 1856-1858.Ã¢â¬ Essays in Criticism 47.1 (1997): 78-87. Wills, Garry. Ã¢â¬Å"Love in the lower depths.Ã¢â¬ The New York Review of Books 26 Oct 1989: 60-68.
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
Why Course 2A is Cooler than You Yes, Im alive. Yes, I havent blogged since JULY. I know, Im a horrible person. Please dont tell me about it, because I already know, and I feel awful about it. =( But, my field hockey season is over and now that I have this wonderful thing called free time, Im ready to start blogging again. Maybe Ill even try to match how prolific I was as a freshman. But Ill probably fail. The topic of todays entry is my own amusement over the number of characters in my major. Most of you are familiar with a system where majors have names, like history, psychology, computer science, or physics. If you know anything about MIT, youve probably heard that we number EVERYTHING: majors, classes, buildings, even the trees. No joke. Majors at MIT are also called courses rather than majors. Very nearly everyone at MIT (the exception being students who are involved in obscure programs) can identify their major in one number of one or two digits. For example, Course VI (which is the only one written in Roman numerals, as far as I know.oh, the intricacies of MIT jargon) is MIT for Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Below are all of the names and numbers for your convenience. As a funny side note: students often get very frustrated when majors are listed in alphabetical order, which often happens on surveys were asked to fill out. It completely throws us off to not have t he majors listed in the following logical order: 1: Civil and Environmental Engineering 2: Mechanical Engineering 3: Materials Science and Engineering 4: Architecture 5: Chemistry 6: Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 7: Biology 8: Physics 9: Brain and Cognitive Sciences 10: Chemical Engineering 11: Urban Studies and Planning 12: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences 14: Economics 15: Management 16: Aeronautics and Astronautics 17: Political Science 18: Mathematics 20: Biological Engineering 21A: Anthropology 21F: Foreign Languages and Literatures 21H: History 21L: Literature 21M: Music and Theater Arts 21W: Writing and Humanistic Studies 22: Nuclear Science and Engineering 24: Linguistics and Philosophy EDIT: I just realized that the Majors and Minors page on the Admissions site that this entry links to lists the majors in alphabetical order. I guess it makes more sense for people not familiar to MIT. But seriously- annoying! Yes, we roll almost all of Humanities into one number, and Linguistics is the same major as Philosophy, and theres no 13, 19, or 23. I know. (Also, for the record, I wrote that entire list from memory without pausing, except to double check that I had remembered all 6 of the 21s. Most MIT students can do that. Seriously. Its kind of scary.) Now, there are a couple of side notes to some of these majors. A few of them have a flexible option, which is often denoted by an arbitrary letter. Flexible physics is 8B but flexible mechanical engineering is 2A. Also, Course VI is broken into three subsections, 6-1, 6-2, and 6-3, which correspond to emphasis on electrical engineering (EE) over computer science (CS), equal emphasis on EE and CS, and emphasis on CS over EE, respectively. (That made sense, right?) Anyway, the point is, most peoples majors are MAYBE 2 characters long. Mine is five. And Im proud of that, thank you. Im 2A-CIR. Now, what in the hell does that mean? First of all, it means that I chose 2A, the flexible version of mechanical engineering. Second of all, it means I chose to concentrate in CIR, or controls, instrumentation, and robotics, which is one of the primary research departments of MITs MechE Department. Why am I telling you this now? Well, 2A is currently going through a re-accreditation process, which means that representatives from the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) are at MIT evaluating the program and making sure its up to scratch. I was invited to attend a meeting for the ABET representative to talk to several undergraduates about the program to get some students perspectives. One of the questions he asked us was why we chose 2A. But before I jump into the answers, I should probably explain a little more about what 2A is. Course 2 is one of the stricter majors- there are a lot of core requirements that must be completed before a degree will be awarded. This doesnt leave much room for electives- there are dozens and dozens of cool classes offered in Course 2, but most students are only able to squeeze 2 or maybe 3 into their schedules around all of the core classes. The core classes are 2.001-2.009, and theyre all paired in levels of difficulty. In other words, 2.001 is Mechanics and Materials, and 2.002 is Mechanics and Materials II. So every 2.00-odd integer is a new topic, and every 2.00-even integer is the continuation of the class before it into more advanced material. The idea behind 2A is that students are able to skip some of the advanced core classes and gain more room in their schedule for electives. In turn, the extra electives most constitute a concentration- so you cant skip important core ideas about MechE just to take random classes that look easy. You have to prove that all of your electives contribute to the improvement of your skills in some area that interests you or will help you in your career aspirations after MIT. Lots of people take this concentration entirely outside of Course 2, so its possible to be 2A and 6 or 2A and 8. These students receive a degree from the MechE department and no official recognition from the secondary major, but they do get the opportunity to explore that major more thoroughly than they would have if they had just chosen Course 2. Other students choose classes based on pre-approved tracks, which roughly correspond to the research departments of MechE. My track is robotics, hence the CIR distinction. Othe r pre-approved tracks include pre-medicine, biomedical engineering, energy conversion, product design, and business management. (Youd be correct in guessing that not all of these are MechE research divisions- the department has been working hard to expand the number of pre-approved tracks available to choose from.) Still other students just make up their own- as long as they can convince the professor in charge of 2A that the electives theyve chosen contribute to a cohesive concentration. So, why did the students at todays accreditation meeting choose 2A? Most said they liked being able to take more electives. Some said that they already knew what they wanted to do with their degree, so they knew that certain core classes would be a waste of their time. As for me, I told the truth: I thought that Course 2 would bore me to death. Seriously. I was undecided between Courses 2 and 16, and felt that they had opposite problems- 2 was too broad while 16 was too specific. I just felt that I could spend 4 years here, take 2.001-2.009, learn a LOT of different things about a lot of different topics within the insanely broad field of mechanical engineering, and then graduate without having the slightest idea of what to do with my life. Id hardly have a chance to try something more specific and find out if Id be interested in it because Id be so busy learning ALL of the basics. (And with a field so broad, there are a LOT of basics). So, I chose 2A as a happy medium, and Im really glad I did. Because of the flexibility, so far Ive been able to take Introduction to Computer Science and Introduction to Robotics. Plus I have another 3 or 4 computer science/electrical engineering/robotics classes coming up in future semesters. And for someone with a n attention span as short as mine, I really need that- Id go crazy if I couldnt mix things up a bit and take some non-Course 2 classes every once in awhile. So, why did I just spend all this time explaining this rare combination of characters of 2A-CIR? Well, for one thing, as far as I can tell, Im the only person at MIT to have that exact major. Which I find pretty awesome. But also, there are a couple of other departments which have similar programs, and I think its an excellent concept. So keep in mind, that even if you dont know what you want to major in, or what you want to do with your life, there are opportunities at MIT for you to forge your own path. Because in the end, forging our own paths is what MIT students do best. Before I sign off, Id like to address one question I received via email a few weeks ago. Donald asked: In your entry Application Advice v2.0 you set out the cardinal rule of the process as being Be Honest and do a good job of expounding on what exactly you mean. Having kept your advice in mind (I read this entry when you actually posted it .. in addition to again earlier today), I find that I actually am beginning to have a problem opposite of some of the hypothetical ones you describeâ"rather than approaching it wrong and trying to write about what I think they want to hear, I worry that what I would honestly write about myself sounds like I am attempting to write what they want to hear. I was in a rush to reply to Donald, so I gave him the basic advice to still tell the truth, and promised to assure him of this in a future blog entry. So Donald, heres the rest of the answer to your question: The admissions committee has been doing this a long time. Even those that have only been doing it for a year have read hundreds of applications. Theyve seen and heard it all- the good, the bad, and the ugly, and they can smell BS about a mile away. They can tell the difference between someone writing what they think they should write and someone writing what they really mean. And no, theyre not entirely psychic. Because the truth is, the rest of your application will back you up. The reason that lying never works is that you wont be able to do it consistently, I promise. The only thing you really have control over is your essays and your short answers. Those are really only a small part of the larger picture of your grades, test scores, teacher recommendations and interview. (If you think you can fake a good interview, youre wrong.) So if you say in one of your short answers that the thing you do for the pleasure of it is learn a lot, and its TRUE, thatll show up in the rest of your application. If your teacher recommendations say that you love to stay after class and ask questions completely unnecessary to pass the course, and if your application shows years of dedication to an academic team, and if your interviewer tells admissions that you seemed really excited to learn about their work (this happened to me; to this day I think my interviewers office was THE coolest lab Ive ever been in), then whoever reads your short answer is going to say, yeah, that makes sense, I believe that. If, on the other hand, your teacher recommendations are mediocre, and all of your activities are athletics, and you write I learn for the fun of it, the person reading your application is going to say, well, this person seemed cool, but now I can tell that theyre full of it. And its more than just lying or telling the truth on an application. Its about how you lead your life. Dont worry, Ill step off the soapbox in a minute. But really- your application is a reflection of 4 years of your life. The only way to fake it is to be someone else for 4 years. Which is just plain dumb, honestly. Just be yourself, and it will all work out in the end. Was that too preachy? I hope that some of you understand what I mean. In the end, the bottom line is just BE HONEST on your application. Dont change your honest answer to something you think your reader will be less suspicious of- because that kind of selling out is no way to treat yourself. Coming soon: a look at machine shops at MIT, plus the story of the disaster of my last semester. The second ones long enough to be a novel, so be prepared.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Auditing a Publicly Traded Company Darren Bruneck, Andrew Green, Shalatikka Smith ACC/541 October 20, 2014 Christine Errico MEMORANDUM TO: Christine Errico, Manager FROM: Darren Bruneck, Andrew Green, Shalatikka Smith DATE: October 20, 2014 SUBJECT: Auditing a Publicly Traded Company The goal of any publicly traded company is to make a profit. Many factors come contribute to the equation to achieve this goal. The most important factor is compliance with the Accounting governing bodies, such as GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). As an accounting firm it is essential to review your financial statements for consistency regarding the accounting treatment of share-based payment and accountingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Second, such arrangements protect the sponsor from possible financial failure by its SPEs (Soroosh, 2004). The protection from the possible failure means that if the SPE cannot pay its debt the company that transferred the assets is only liable for what it put into the SPE. There is a drawback to the off-balance sheet arrangements. The assets that are transferred to the SPE have to be removed from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet. If an SPE is created to finance a certain capital asset or project neither the asset nor liability wi ll be included in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet. Consolidation is presenting one set of financial statements of a reporting entity (the parent company) and its subsidiaries. Consolidation is required when one business entity has a controlling financial interest in one or more other business entities. (Schroeder, Clark, Cathey; 2011) Discussed are the two prominent theories of consolidation, entity theory and parent company theory. Covered will be the basics of each theory and any complex issues will be discussed upon necessity. Entity theory is where the consolidated group is an entity separate from its owners. Emphasis is on the control of the group of legal entities operating as a single unit. Consolidated assets belong to the consolidate entity, and he income earned by investing in those assets is income to the consolidated entity, not the parent company stockholders. Reference SFAS No 14 for more details. (Schroeder,
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Time to Legalize Embryonic Stem Cell Research In the United States of America, people have many rights and freedoms that are respected by the Federal Government. As stated in Civil Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau: Ã¢â¬Å"There will never be a truly free and enlightened state until the state comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent powerÃ¢â¬ (225). In the goal to make America a truly free and enlightened state, laws have been enacted to preserve individual rights. With the furthering of medical science, the issue of individual rights vs. government regulation has been raised many times, and the right of the individual has always been held in the highest regard. This is why our government should both legalize andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If the majority of the public were to decide what each individual should do in every aspect of their life, our democratic system would be nullified. Our laws are written to recognize individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ capability to make their own decisions. We have the right to d onate our organs, and that it is our choice. We have the right to donate our entire bodies to science postmortem, and that is our choice. Couples have the right to donate their eggs and sperm for in-vitro fertilization of another couple, and that is their choice. Women have the right to decide whether they want to conceive a child or terminate a pregnancy, and that is their choice. In each instance individuals are given the power to choose, they are not denied the opportunity, or forced into doing something they do not want to. The government does not deny your right to be an organ donor, or tell you that you have to conceive a child when another couple cannot, because we would then be practicing Totalitarianism instead of Democracy. These examples, although extreme, directly relate to the subject of stem cell research because of what it entails and how the procedure is done. Stem cells are cells that are not specialized, and can become many different kinds of human tissue. There are two types of stem cells: Adult stem cells, which cannot form all tissues of the body, are found inShow MoreRelatedHsm 542 Week 12 Discussion Essay45410 Words Ã |Ã 182 PagesObjectives (TCOs): A | Given a situation related to reproductive genetics, genetic research, or the human genome project, develop a set of legal and ethical guidelines, which can be applied to genetic issues for the conduct of medical practice and/or research. | B | Given the contentious debate surrounding issues of procreation, develop an institutional policy, which can be applied to the range of treatment and research issues related to procreation. | C | Given the mandate for advance directives
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
our site Ã¢â¬â CUSTOM ESSAY WRITING Ã¢â¬â HEALTH DISSERTATION TOPICS Abstract An exploration into Holoprosencephaly, the genetic birth defect; we will observe how it presents itself in su erers- the physical and neurological symptoms, we will brie y try to identify the main candidates that can be linked to its etiology and nally taking the SHH pathway as an example we will explain how a genetic mutation could give rise to the associated symptoms of HPE. 1 HPE Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a congenital defect in the nervous system, whereby the developing prosencephalon (or forebrain) fails to bifurcate into left and right hemispheres- typically occurring ve to six weeks into pregnancy (Golden, 1999). It is the most common malformation of the brain- occurring in 1:250 developing embyros, with 1:8,000 live births due to a 3% chance of survival to delivery (Co-hen, 1989). We will write a custom essay sample on Holoprosencephaly: its nature and manifestation or any similar topic only for you Order Now The failure of the cleavage into two bilateral cerebral hemispheres gives rise to a continuum of motor and developmental malformations, the most prominent being craniofacial defects and damaged brain structure. There are four classes of HPE1, varying in the degree of cortical separation and associated severity of symptoms2 (Raam, 2011). The most severe form is Alobar HPE, this is characterised by a complete or near lack of interhemispheric separation and an absence of olfactory bulbs and corpus callosum. This makes up roughly two-thirds of HPE patients (OMIM, 2012), the most extreme grade in this class will have cyclopia: no separation along the midline of the brain, with no sense of chirality in their embryogenesis. In this case the foetus will develop a single, medial eye above the root of the nose- they will rarely survive the perinatal period. The next class is Semilobar HPE, which can be identi ed by a partial posterior cortical separation (but no anterior) with basal hemispher es, the olfac-tory bulbs and corpus callosum are either absent or hypoplastic. In this case the eyes are now slightly separated by proboscis, but the motor skills are still highly impaired. The next form is lobar HPE, this is a milder form of semilobar, di er-entiated by the latter by the presence of a frontal horn in the lateral ventricle. Lobar has an interhemispherical ssure, but there still incomplete separation of the prosencephalon; the corpus callosum is absent in the a ected region and the olfactory bulbs are hypoplastic. There is less severe motor malfunction, and the face can develop closely spaced eyes, at nose and cleft lip. The fourth and mildest form is the Middle Interhemispheric Variant (MIV), where the most a ected regions of nonseparation occur in the posterior frontal and pariental lobes; the corpus callosum is typically absent in the region or hypoplastic. This variant of HPE has mild craniofacial and neurological impairments. All of these deformities can be dete cted through neuroimaging, and can be discerned by the above phenotypes. 2 Causes Current research into the causes of HPE is still developing; most sources can-not give exact causes, but there a number of factors that have been linked to the disorder. The most supported model is given by the Multiple Hit Hypothesis which states that HPE derives from a combination of environmental and genetic factors, i.e. it is an autosomal-dominant disease; it is believed that this would explain the heterogeneity of the phenotypes (OMIM, 2012). Teratogens are be-lieved to disturb the development of the normal phenotype: maternal diabetes has been linked to a 200% increased risk of HPE in the foetus( Croen, 2000; Raam, 2011). This along with hypocholesterolemia and the drug cyclopamine are linked to disturbances in cholesterol production, inhibiting the Sonic Hedge-hog (SHH) Signalling Pathway (Cohen, 1989). The fact that the defects occur early in pregnancy implies a gastrulation disorder supporting the theory that infections whilst pregnant and drug taking (alcohol, anti-epilept ic medication 1 There is a mild associated form called Microform, with similar craniofacial characteristics, but no sign of nonseparation, as such typically not considered within HPE. 2 A common used term is that Ã¢â¬Å"the face predicts the brainÃ¢â¬ , this is a general correlation that exists between the degree of mental and physical retardation and mortality within the four classes and ethanol for example) are likely environmental causes. The genetic etiology are related to familial occurrences3, genetic syndromes of HPE and non ran-dom chromosomal aberrations- identi ed by high resolution karotype counts, or DNA microarrays. A relatively common cause of HPE-approximately 28%, (Geng, 2009)- has been found to be loss-of-function mutations in the genes: SHH, ZIC2, SIX3 and TGIF- whereby the particular gene product will be un-able to perform its original function. There are ve other genes identi ed with HPE, but these four mutations are the most prevalent and as such are the main roots for DNA sequencing. These genes are related to the Nodal and SHH pathways. De ciency in the Nodal protein results in a failure to form the PrCP gene; this e ects the formation of the primitive streak. The establishment of this structure is important in creating a longitudinal plane of symmetry along the embryonic disk that allows cell migration into the midline to create the mesoderm, the cells of which form a rod called the notochord. The SHH gene is a morphogen that regulates ventral midline structure in the forebrain (Roessler, 2003) and is crucial in formation of the eyes and face. It is a molecule that responds to variations in a concentration gradient within the neural tube by di using Sonic Hedgehog, produced by the signalling centre of the notochord (Placzek, 1999). 3 How the gene leads to the disorder In order to understand how HPE4 manifests itself through the mutation in this gene we will consider its role in brain embryology (Marieb, 2003). By around the fth day after fertilisation, the blastocyst of the egg is released- this is a sphere composed of trophoblast cells and inner cell mass; this will undergo gastrulation whereby the inner cell mass is converted into the three primary germ layers and the embryonic disk. This disk attens and a primitive streak creates a midline depression along the median. Three weeks into pregnancy the ectoderm thick-ens along the dorsal midline axis of the embryo to form the neural plate, which when folds into the neural tube by the fourth week, the anterior of which expands rapidly to form the three brain ventricles of the prosencephalon along with the middle and the hindbrain; by this time eye rudiments are present. Normally, in the fth week the prosencephalon will bifurcate into the diencephalon and the telencephalon-from the dorsal plate and v entral plate, respectively- connected by the corpus callosum. The telencephalon then Ã¢â¬Å"swellsÃ¢â¬ into the cerebral hemi-spheres and by the eighth week all brain exures are formed. The role of the SHH gene is to produce the Sonic Hedgehog protein that signals the activation of the ventral midline of the forebrain. In HPE, with a mutated SHH gene, there is a reduced or no production of this protein and as a result the fore-brain will not split into a left and right (Roessler, 2003). Along with this it secretes the molecule responsible for signalling the division of a single eye eld 3 There are a number of case studies in (OMIM, 2012) on families where HPE is an inherited condition 4 To be exact, this is Holoprosencephaly type 3 into two distinct eyes. Hence, a SHH mutation can lead to a lack of interhemi-spheric separation and merging of the eyes, which would a ect the development of the rest of the face. This shows the symptoms of HPE su erers, suggesting the disorder is a subclass related to the loss-of-function of the SHH signalling pathway. If there was a complete lack of SHH signalling there would be no separation in the telenchephalon, and as such no connecting corpus callosum, the primordial eye eld would not divide into two lateral eye elds, thereby resulting in an embyro with cyclopia from Alobar HPE. Similarly, inactivity of the Nodal signalling pathway causes failure in the formation of the mesendo-derm and axis-asymmetry. As stated before there are a number of genes that are linked to HPE that also regulate organogenesis but the spectrum of the disorder is entirely variable and there are 75% of HPE cases that do not have any of these gene mutations . The most satisfactory hypothesis is the Multi-hit model; there is no single exact cause that could trigger the defect in all of the presented cases and produce the four classes of severity, but it is possible that the pathogenesis must involve some event in the regulatory regions that induces the expression of the four identi ed genes in the forebrain, though the trigger might not necessarily be the same in every instance. 4 References Cohen, M.M. Jr., Perspectives on holoprosencephaly: Part III. Spectra, distinc-tions, continuities, and discontinuities. Am J Med Genet. 1989; 34: 271-88. Cohen, M Shiota, K, Teratogenesis of Holoprosencephaly. Amercian Journal of Medical Genetics. 2002; 109: 1-15. Croen L.A, Shaw G.M Lammer E.J, Risk factors for cytogenetically normal holoprosencephaly in California: A population-based case-control study. Am J Med Genet. 2000; 90: 320-325. Geng, X Oliver, G, Pathogenesis of holoprosencephaly. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(6):14031413 Golden, J.A, Towards a greater understanding of the pathogeneis of holoprosen- cephaly. Brain Dev. 1999; 21: 513-521. Graham, J.M. Jr. Shaw, G.M, Gene-Environment Interactions in Rare Dis-eases that Include Common Birth Defects. Birth Defects Research. 2005; 73: 865-867. Marieb, E.N, Human Anatomy and Physiology. California: Benjamin Cum-mings, 1989. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM. Johns Hopkins University, Bal-timore, MD. MIM Number: 236100. [Accessed 28/11/2012] World Wide Web URL: http://omim.org/ Placzek, M, The role of the notochord andoor plate in inductive interactions. Genetics and Development. 1997; 5(4): 499-506. Raam, M.S, Soloman, B.D Muenke, M, Holoprosencephaly: A Guide to Di-agnosis and Clinical Management. Indian Pediatrics. 2011; 48: 457-466. Roessler, E Muenke, M, How a Hedgehog might see holoprosencephaly. Hu-man Molecular Genetics. 2003; 12(1): R15-R25. How to cite Holoprosencephaly: its nature and manifestation, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Cultural Psychology for Marketing Science. Answer: Introduction Many psychology-related literatures reveals cognitive psychology, plotting of cognitive structures and associations between the manner and languages where individuals categorize the entire world. Nevertheless, the studies with social interactions are viewed from the different point of views based on different classes, cultures, which also enabled to understand the barriers and their intensities to what the barriers affect these intercultural-cultural communication (Rapport, 2014). As stated by Thompson (2013) culture and communication are interlinked as they are overlapping in all possible ways. Culture is usually defined by the features that a certain group of the population possesses, referring to religion, language, social habits, interests and customs. It can be rightfully stated that social interaction, that is communication, forms to be the building block of all societies. The systems and rules of our country are dependent on the interaction taking place across the society. Hei ne (2015) opines that cultural psychology studies how behavioral and psychological tendencies are embedded and rooted in culture. The chief theory underlying cultural psychology is that culture and mind are inseparable and they can be referred to being mutually constitutive. There lies a simple relation between people and their culture; culture is shaped by people and vice versa. Cultural psychology explores the process by which cultural traditions and social practices does the regulation, expression, and transformation of the human psyche. Shiraev Levy (2015) highlight that cultural psychologists put in tremendous efforts that yield a multitude of interesting and usually controversial cultural differences in the psychological processes, encompassing motivation, time and space perception, reasoning styles, relational styles, and emotional expression. This essay explores whether it is possible to have an insight of personality, social behavior and individual characteristics without having any experience of socialization while being in a culture and learn the implicit assumptions and rules of the culture. It will also check if it is possible to have an insight into rules, causes, behavior and determinants of social experience while be a complete outsider. Discussion Culture is defined as the possession of comparable features and traits, like feelings, attitudes, thought processes, personalities, beliefs, opinions, and behaviours, found in a certain cluster of populace. The characteristics ar epredominantly conceded from one generation to another. Although some of the traits have an overlapping between cultures, some significant differences are present too. Cultural psychology is referred to as a promising discipline that reveals the methods of cultural regulations and traditions of societal practices, which could alter human psyche and transform expression (Vaughn, 2015). Thereby, an approach where subject and object, figure, and ground, psyche and culture are composed together (Moran, Abramson Moran, 2014). In psychology, culture made a brief appearance considering both the methods and the theories. The best part is that individuals past and present are taken into consideration in order to build knowledge of social and biological sciences. Thu s, it could be stated that the functions of social psychologists are limited to individuals behavior that is affected by existing forces of actions, choices, and thoughts, where psychologists are separated from their personal area and make good choices. Statement in favor Simons Hughes (2012) stated that social behavior of any culture involves an insight of individuals perceptions associated with their social concerns. It is sometimes debated that ideas associated with social illustrations and attitudes are illuminated as definite factors associated with social behavior. There are set of guidelines, which are introduced in regard to Code of Ethics, which further enable the psychologists to carry out their practices. For instance, while psychometric analyses are used, the experiments are carried out by the psychologists so that they can measure and predict emotional behavioural and cognitive functioning that would support individual or group evaluation. It also helps to compare behaviours with culture, so, provides a signal of the individuals abilities, behaviours, weaknesses and strength (Staub, 2013). In certain cases, social psychologists check the attribution effects in order to understand peoples behaviour that does not include external traits. F or example, in order to obtain ideas of various different cultural affairs, the major task is to be well equipped with the theories and concepts of psychology across cultures. A psychologist may deal with cultures other than his own culture and thereby, deals with different personal beliefs and experiences (Neuliep, 2012). This shows that the psychologists, who are learning social behaviour from other cultures, are not necessarily a part of it. They need to acquire a thorough understanding of multiple cultures, consider social recognition and also need to be competent enough to accept ideas from different other cultures. In order to distinguish cultures of two different countries, the social psychologists need to look at universal as well as unique traits. Thus, the psychologists being from diverse ethnic backgrounds could obtain adequate knowledge of social traits and behaviours and also segregate their perceptions and personal beliefs (Sherif, 2015). The social psychologists need to understand the significance of cultural values to act sensitive and be aware, which would further help them to develop adaptability and flexibility (Myers, 2015). Valsiner (2014) discusses that two elementary factors prevail in the relationship of cognitive and social phenomena; thinking and culture. Culture is a section of the collection memeory we have and our perceptions and thoughts of ourselves, which needs deep analysis. For exploring this, psychologists can take the help of Cognitive Mapping that assists in drawing a mental picture of the representations of an individual and aid in gaining insights into the proce ss an individual saves and recalls the information in his environment. A primary peculiratity to gain knowledge while studying psychology and its relation with culture lies in the dissimilaritiesbetween collective and individualistic cultures. People who come from individualistic culture have an independent conception of the self, while focusing on the personal achievments. Members belonging to the collectivistic society usually have the focus on the interdependent conception of self while focusing on the aspects that bring benefit to the group. Eysenck Wilson (2012) pinpoints that there lie distinct points of difference between humans and other animals. Humans can be called as inherent social animals as they coherently survive through taking advantage of power of the group. Within this biological group, the tendency is to make up solutions for issues that are address both social and biological requirements. Evolution is responsible for this inheritance in humans and adaptation to ecological aspects enhances the chances of survival of the humans. Nature has been endowing humans with a comprehensive set of psychological processes for addressing the needs they have in social and biological contexts. These take into consideration both cognitive and emotional abilities, dispositions and preferences. Heine (2015) highlight that personal and cognitive biases have a strong impact on the decision making process and all judgments made are based on these biases. It is often argued that judgement itself may not be undesirable in all c ases, and that the process of judgement is what all must analyse in order to understand its appropriateness. Making judgments is an integral element of life as they are responsible for producing decisions for suitable results. Implicit biases have a strong presence throughout, and the aim of developing such biases is to help in solving all arising issues. This forms an efficient tool that psychologists can use for solving problems. Human interactions comprise associations between traits, personality along with situational variables that play a crucial role in individuals responses and reactions, which are consistent with the original traits. This supports the idea that it is possible to be an outsider and yet have an insight into the rules, social determinants, and related causes in terms of behaviour and social experience. Opposing statement Contrary to cultural relativism, ethnocentrism is a crucial factor, which is repeatedly used by the cultural psychologists as a prudence criterion for analysing various cultures, where norms lead to biases that further generate an inclination towards cultural difference (Rubin Brown, 2013). Being ethnocentric might allow an individual to think limited focusing only on own cultural aspect, which would further make an individual culturally incompetent. To avoid ethnocentrism, social psychologists need to go through the articles that inform the readers about intercultural communication. This would further enable individuals to adopt ideas from other cultures, practice among groups with diverse ethnic background, analyse major influences that the cultures have on thought processes, style of speaking, listening and behaving. A most fundamental practice in this context would be eliminating communication barriers (Roese Olson, 2014). Ethnocentrism could act as a challenge to think beyond individuals cultural ethics and norms and thereby designing a conclusion, which is limited to the host culture. This further gives rise to irrational and biased judgements. Reluctance to trying cuisine from other cultures is ethnocentric. The social scientists are trying to treat such differences among various cultures as neither superior nor inferior (Rubin Brown, 2013). While dealing with differences, judging and analysing against a set standard would be a typical reaction. According to some social psychologists, trying to deviate one from his/her own set of beliefs might make them feel inferior or misconstrued and thereby, not favourable (Rapport, 2014). Certain implicit cognitions might also be present, in terms of stereotyping or attitudes, which could further affect personal understandings. These could be spontaneous and without any control and sometimes are concealed for the aim of social precision. This could give rise to attitudes and feelings that are based on certain characteristics like ethnicity and race. These associations could lead to a revelation to indirect or direct messages as these are not in line with the stated beliefs. While such perceptions are thought to be valid, individuals tend to justify unreasonable actions that might cause an enduring negative impact. Communication can be of two forms, verbal and non-verbal, and both of these methods are equally important to hold a position in the society. Behaviours regarding learning to speak and provide nonverbal messages are reflected by these. Differences, however, lie in how different people communicate, as factors like individuality, personality, context and mood have an impact on communication styles. The building of relationships among individuals and the effectiveness of these relationships are influenced by communication, and there lie some basic points of dissimilarities in the way different individuals view the world around. This can venture intrusion with the interactions between individuals and may show the way to redundant conflicts. One aspect seeming to be true in one context may not be so in another context., depending on the place and the relationships under that circumstance (Broadbent, 2013). Eysenck Wilson (2012) states that acceptable human behaviour may differ from one cu lture to another and time period is also a constraint. One has to have a deep-rooted knowledge of culture and behaviour of a certain section of the society in order to adapt to it and implement it in own lifestyle. Each social clan has a certain standard for the population it comprises of. Remarkable behaviors are measured to be either amusing, or distasteful. A behaviour considered normal in one culture may not be considered acceptable in another. On the contrary, in certain subcultures prevalent in the exceedingly spirited society, the absence of attention focused onto competition is out of step in certain instances. Valsiner (2014) believes that cultural identities are to be discovered layer by layer in order to understand the concept in a clear manner. Self-reflection and interpersonal reflection are the two means by which this discovery can be done. Some identities can be readily identified as they are noticeable, however strong interaction is required for penetrating deep into the inner layers of culture. Ability to self-reflect determines the success in understanding newencounters in culture. Hence, from this discussion, it could be mentioned that without being from a particular cultural background, it is difficult for an individual to learn about typical characteristics, personality and social behaviour of the people from other cultural setting. Conclusion Drawing conclusion from the above discussion it can bestated that understanding of culture and communication is a matter ofdebate owing to the multi-dimensional characteristic. Culture and communication are being studied for centuries, and people have tried to embrace changes in culture and communication through out the eras. Studies have showed that people immersed in a social context could communicate effectively with individuals from the same culture or different cultures. It can be therefore stated that a person, considered to be unfamiliar with a culture can be a social psychologist. Tests and theories would form the basis for making judgments from a psychologists point of view. With the help of these aids, the psychologist can adapt to and learn different cultures and understand social behaviours. Cultural uniqueness could be revealed step by step, which may take place through either interpersonal communication or self-reflection. Certain identities are promptly noticeable. How ever, it majorly requires in-depth interaction to elicit the core meaning. While people from cross-cultural background meet, one may quickly judge by external factors, however, it actually takes the time to relate and share some profound experiences. It must be taken into consideration that culture bears a strong relationship with constantly evolving social phenomena and ideology. Culture is a learned process that all individuals possess from birth and modifies throughout life span. By providing supporting and contradictory factors, this essay suitably explored whether one can be a social psychologist and learn about others cultures while being from other cultural background. References Broadbent, D. E. (2013).Perception and communication. Elsevier. Eysenck, M., Wilson, G. (Eds.). (2012).A textbook of human psychology. Springer Science Business Media. Heine, S. J. (2015).Cultural Psychology: Third International Student Edition. WW Norton Company. Moran, R. T., Abramson, N. R., Moran, S. V. (2014).Managing cultural differences. Routledge. Myers, M. B. (2015). Ethnocentrism: a literature overview and directions for future research. InProceedings of the 1995 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 202-207). 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